From Merriam Webster-
The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory
A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.
In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.
A hypothesis is usually tentative; it’s an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.
A theory, in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory. Because of the rigours of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.
In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.
Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.
The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)
This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it’s implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.
The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was “a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things.” As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said, a theory “doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”
While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said “to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up.”
THE HIV/AIDS HYPOTHESIS
“A recent study by Chigwedere et al., ‘‘Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa”, claims that during the period from 2000 to 2005 about 330,000 South African AIDS-deaths were caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) per year that could have been prevented by available anti-HIV drugs. The study blamed those who question the hypothesis that HIV is the cause of AIDS, particularly former South African President Thabo Mbeki and one of us, for not preventing these deaths by anti-HIV treatments”
“We conclude that the claims that HIV has caused huge losses of African lives are unconfirmed and that HIV is not sufficient or even necessary to cause the previously known diseases, now called AIDS in the presence of antibody against HIV. Further we call into question the claim that HIV antibody-positives would benefit from anti-HIV drugs, because these drugs are inevitably toxic and because there is as yet no proof that HIV causes AIDS.”
In essence HIV has never been isolated and characterised. There are no clinical symptoms specific to AIDS. All AIDS related diseases can be caused by other factors with the pathologies noted in the gayUS community such as the Kaposi Sarcomas (KS) being explainable by oxidative stress and disruption to Nitrous Oxide pathways, while there is almost never KS in the African cohort and all the AIDS related pathologies there explainable by poor nutrition.
Oxidative Stress, HIV and AIDS (pdf warning)
“It has been accepted by researchers at the CDC that KS (Kaposi’s sarcoma), the first and most specific of the AIDS indicator diseases, for which the explanation of the HIV hypothesis was put forward by Gallo in 1982, is not caused directly or indirectly by HIV (Beral et al., 1990). On the other hand, recent empirical observations from three seemingly unrelated areas of AIDS research are in agreement with the hypothesis that oxidative mechanisms play a critical role in HIV expression and AIDS development.
“Thus, the systemic decrease of glutathione concentration in HIV seropositive individuals may result from both, decrease in synthesis and increased degradation. The oxidative stress to which the AIDS patients are subjected would lead to cellular anomalies in many cells, including lymphocytes, resulting in opportunistic infection, immunological abnormalities and neoplasia. All this argues in favour of oxidation as being a critical factor in the pathogenesis of AIDS and HIV expression.”
This paper was published in 1993
📷Michael McEvoy5.0 out of 5 stars Remarkable Work, Incredibly Important Book For Intensive ResearchersReviewed in the United States on November 22, 2018Verified PurchaseDr. Heinrich Kremer has written a masterful book that describes with intricate details the major problems with the HIV/AIDS research and theory. Kremer highlights the reality of functional TH2 imbalance within the immune cells as a counterregulatory shift set off by longterm oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction, coupled by thiol deficiency and redox disequilibrium leads to cachexia, immunological dysfunction in both AIDS and cancer. Toxic drugs perpetuate the problem of chronic thiol depletion and redox dysfunction. Must read for anyone wanting a deep dive into biochemistry, the historical context of AIDS, and the major flaws in the existing dogma.5 people found this helpfulHelpfulComment Report abuse
📷Stephanie Seneff5.0 out of 5 stars If you think you understand AIDS and cancer, think again!Reviewed in the United States on October 26, 2012Verified PurchaseThis is arguably the best book I have ever read, in terms of how it spoke to me. The author obviously is extremely well informed about biology, and the book is full of detailed accounts of how biology works. The hypothesis he proposes is a mind-bender: he makes a strong claim that AIDS and cancer are caused by an excessive cumulative exposure to oxides of nitrogen, which results in a steady drain of glutathione and other sulfur-containing metabolites.It will also make you seriously question the validity of “standard treatment” for diseases like AIDS and cancer.
So we have a situation where the alternative hypothesis put forth in 1993 has continued to be developed on and proving itself more and more valuable as a useful assumption to treat patients diagnosed with both cancer and AIDS however, as the title of the book suggests, despite building such a robust hypothesis this powerful argument still exists as a silent revolution within the medical community as with half a trillion dollars of tax payer dollars diverted in to HIV related research over the last 30 years, who would be willing to declare the HIV/AIDS hypothesis as dead? And even if they did, how would they overcome the incumbent assumptions regarding the disease when even esteemed academics such as Duesberg get turned in to a complete pariah when the medical/scientific/publishing apparatus declares you a AIDS Denialist. How many books have to get published, academics have to speak up in order to declare a hypothesis invalid and begin diverting those tax payer dollars towards a new line of inquiry which may in fact yield much more beneficial findings for global health?
THE OUT OF AFRICA THEORY
How was the Out of Africa Theory Established?
Out of Africa was only established in the 90’s during a debate as to the age of modern humans.
The development of genetic analysis tools in the 1980s helped scientists grow attracted to the out of Africa hypothesis. Matches between the DNA of living modern humans and fossil remains verified that H. sapiens evolved several hundred thousand years ago on African soil.
The theory explains that while numerous human-like species walked the planet, only one arose into modern man*.*
“There were at least several “out-of-Africa” dispersals of modern humans, possibly beginning as early as 270,000 years ago, including 215,000 years ago to at least Greece, and certainly via northern Africa about 130,000 to 115,000 years ago.These early waves appear to have mostly died out or retreated by 80,000 years ago.
The most significant “recent” wave took place about 70,000–50,000 years ago, via the so-called “Southern Route“, spreading rapidly along the coast of Asia and reaching Australia by around 65,000–50,000 years ago,”
Accordingly, we can infer that Eve lived three times 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, or roughly 150,000 to 180,000 years ago.5
This declaration was regarded as the final word, and the resolution of “15 years of disagreement”6 between two branches of science. Wilson and Cann triumphantly proclaimed victory on behalf of the molecular geneticists declaring that “we won the argument, when the palaeontologists admitted we had been right and they had been wrong.”7
With the case closed and bragging rights secured in perpetuity, science had once again provided certainty and an African ancestry. Or so it seemed. But not long after their paper was published Rebecca Cann realised they were mistaken. In 1982 she examined the mitochondrial DNA of 112 Indigenous people, including twelve full-descent Aboriginals, and the results were in total opposition to what they assumed was fully resolved.
Nevertheless, Cann was obliged to contradict a central tenet of their paper, stating that “mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aboriginals arose 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages,
The realignment and reversals were of immediate concern to Alan Wilson. If Cann was correct in detecting a “much higher number of mutations”11 they may as well tear up their original paper.
…….Upon receiving the results of his second mtDNA sampling Wilson immediately conceded the Out-of-Africa theory was wrong…….
Referring back to Wilson and Canns original calculations, their proposed timing of somewhere between 50-60,000 years stands on no less shaky ground than their genetic miscalculation. There are at least ten Australian sites claimed to be older than 60,000 years, granted every date is challenged by conservative critics, but even so, all are the products of respected academics.
What needs to be accepted is that if just one date proves to be correct, irrespective of whatever judgment is passed on the other nine, it can be confidently declared as a fact that Australia was not settled by African Homo sapiens 60,000 years ago. Whether the winning site turns out to be Lake George-fire-stick farming (120,000 years); Lake Eyre-skullcap (135,000 years); Jinmium-tools (176,000 years); Panaramittee-rock-engraving of saltwater crocodile (75,000 years); Rottnest Island-tools (70,000 years); Devonport-rock-engravings (>115,000 years); Jinmium-art (75-116,000 years); Great Barrier Reef-fire-stick farming (185,000 years); Lake Mungo (WLH3)-complete skeleton (61-65,000 years); or (WLH1)-cremated bones (61,000 years); one out of the ten is sufficient to deny African entry.
The main reason I structured this post the way I have is to emphasise the explanatory power of the different explanations for causation in a couple of controversial topics and how some hypotheses are favoured more than others in incumbent organisations which may have a conflict of interest in perpetuating the misunderstanding. In admitting the failure of the HIV AIDS hypothesis you are slaughtering a half a trillion tax payer dollar cash cow that’s been paying your way for the last few decades. To accept the out of Australia theory over the out of Africa could similarly challenge the human ape common ancestor narrative as well.
A Law on the other hand, is something that is always the case. The Laws of thermodynamics can not be violated. There may be phenomena where there appears to be some violations as temporal oppositions but when seen nested within hierarchical systems do in fact adhere to these laws. In terms of Biology there are only a few listed on wikipedia as
There are definitely a few interesting ones there that warrant further contemplation particularly with respect to temperatures and latitudes however, it may be worth considering if there are any biological laws that haven’t been included in this wiki list. However what about the biological laws proposed by Dr Ryke Geerd Hamer?
Dr. med. Ryke Geerd Hamer was born on May 17, 1935 in Mettmann, Germany. He spent his childhood with his paternal grandparents in East Frisia. In 1953, he began to study medicine, theology, and physics at the University of Tuebingen. At the age of 22, he completed his master’s degree in theology and then, four years later, received his professional license as a doctor of medicine. The following years he practiced at various university clinics in Germany.
In 1972, Dr. Hamer completed his specialization in internal medicine and began to work at the University clinic in Tuebingen as an internist in charge of cancer patients. At the same time, he ran a private practice with his wife Dr. Sigrid Hamer, whom he had met during their studies in Tuebingen. He also showed an extraordinary talent for inventing medical devices. Among others, he owns the patent for a non-traumatic scalpel (Hamer Scalpel) which cuts twenty times sharper than a razor blade, a special bone saw for plastic surgery, and a massage table that automatically adjusts to the body’s contours.
His inventions provided Dr. Hamer and his family with the financial means to move to Italy, where he realized his plan to treat the sick in the slums of Rome free of charge. On August 18th, 1978, while in Rome, the Hamers received the shocking news that their son Dirk had been accidentally shot by the Italian Prince Victor Emanuel of Savoy. On December 7th, 1978, Dirk succumbed to the injuries and died in his father’s arms. Dirk is buried under the city wall at the pyramid in Rome.
Shortly after Dirk’s death, Dr. Hamer was diagnosed with testicular cancer. Since he had never been seriously ill, he postulated that the development of his cancer could be directly related to the unexpected loss of his son. In fact, he would eventually, in honor of Dirk, call this unexpected shock a DHS or “Dirk Hamer Syndrome”. Dirk’s death and his own experience with cancer set Dr. Hamer on an extraordinary scientific journey.
At the time head internist of a cancer clinic at the University of Munich, he began to investigate his cancer patients’ histories and soon learned that, like him, they all had experienced an unexpected shock of one sort or another. But he took his research even further. Pursuing the hypothesis that all bodily processes are controlled from the brain, he analyzed his patients’ brain scans and compared them with their medical records and personal histories. To his amazement, he found a clear correlation between certain types of “conflict shocks”, how these shocks manifest themselves on the organ level as specific symptoms and how all this is connected to the brain. Until then, no studies had examined the role of the brain as the mediator between the psyche and a diseased organ.
Dr. Hamer established that every disease originates from a shock or trauma that catches an individual completely by surprise. The moment the unexpected conflict occurs, the shock strikes a specific, predetermined area in the brain causing a lesion (later called Hamer Focus or HH – Hamerscher Herd), visible on a brain scan as a set of sharp concentric rings. Before Dr. Hamer identified these ringed lesions on a brain scan, radiologists considered them as artifacts created by a glitch in the machine. But Siemens, a manufacturer of computer tomography equipment, certified that these target lesions cannot be artifacts because even when the tomography is repeated and taken from different angles, the same ring formation always appears in the same location.
The brain cells that receive the shock (DHS) send a biochemical signal to the corresponding body cells causing the growth of a tumor, a meltdown of tissue, or functional loss, depending on which part of the brain is involved. The reason why specific conflicts are irrefutably tied to specific areas in the brain is that during the development of the human organism each brain area was programmed to respond instantly to situations that could threaten survival. While the brainstem, the oldest part of the brain, is programmed with primordial conflicts related to breathing (death-fright conflicts) reproduction (procreation conflicts) and food (morsel conflicts), the cerebrum, the youngest part of the brain, correlates to more advanced matters (separation conflicts, territorial conflicts). Dr. Hamer also discovered that every disease progresses in two phases: first, a conflict-active phase, characterized by emotional distress, a lack of appetite, and sleeplessness, and then, provided the conflict can be resolved, a healing phase. This is the period in which the psyche, the brain and the affected organ undergo the phase of recovery, an often difficult process marked by fatigue, headaches, inflammation, “infections”, and pain.
Firmly anchored in the science of embryology and in full accordance with evolutionary logic, Dr. Hamer called his findings “The Five Biological Laws of the New Medicine”. Over the years, he was able to confirm his discoveries with over 40,000 case studies.
FIRST BIOLOGICAL LAW (“The Iron Rule of Cancer”)
1st Criterion: Every “disease” – hereinafter called Significant Biological Special Program (SBS) – originates from a DHS (Dirk Hamer Syndrome), which is an unexpected, highly acute, and isolating conflict shock that occurs simultaneously in the psyche, the brain, and on the corresponding organ.2nd Criterion: The content of the conflict determines which organ will be affected and from which area of the brain the SBS will be controlled. 3rd Criterion: Every SBS runs synchronously on the level of the psyche, the brain, and the organ.
Severe malnutrition, poisoning, or an injury can result in the dysfunction of an organ without a DHS.
SECOND BIOLOGICAL LAW
Every SBS-Significant Biological Special Program runs in two phases provided there is a resolution of the conflict.
THE CONFLICT-ACTIVE PHASE (CA-Phase)
When the DHS occurs, the normal day-night-rhythm is instantly interrupted and the autonomic nervous system switches into lasting sympathicotonia and a prolonged state of stress with nervous restlessness, a fast heartbeat, elevated blood pressure, slow digestion, frequent urination, and little appetite. Since the blood vessels are constricted during stress, typical signs of conflict activity are cold hands, cold sweats, and the shivers. We therefore call the conflict-active phase also the COLD phase.
The PSYCHE is in a compulsive thinking mode. The constant dwelling over the conflict causes sleep disturbances (waking up shortly after falling asleep, usually around 3 o’clock in the morning). The extra waking hours and the total focus on the conflict serve to find a resolution to the conflict as soon as possible.
THE HEALING PHASE (PCL= post-conflictolysis)
With the resolution of the conflict, the autonomic nervous system switches into lasting vagotonia and a prolonged state of rest with fatigue but good appetite. Resting and the desire to eat provide the organism with the necessary energy for healing. If the healing phase is intense, the tiredness could be so overwhelming that one can hardly get out of bed. The need for sleep is particularly strong during the day (in conventional medicine, persistent tiredness is diagnosed as “chronic fatigue syndrome”). Accompanying symptoms are a slow pulse and low blood pressure. During vagotonia, the blood vessels expand causing warm hands and a warm skin. We therefore call the healing phase also the WARM phase.
The PSYCHE is in a state of relief.
If more tissue is required to facilitate a conflict resolution, the corresponding organ generates cell proliferation during the conflict-active phase. This process applies to all organs and tissues that are controlled by the brainstem and the cerebellum such as the lungs, liver, pancreas, colon, thyroid, or breast glands. In embryological terms, these organs derive from the endoderm or from the old mesoderm (see Third Biological Law).
If less tissue is required to facilitate a conflict resolution, the organ or tissue responds with cell loss. This process applies to all organs and tissues that are controlled from the cerebral medulla and the cerebral cortex such as the bones and joints, ovaries, testicles, coronary arteries, coronary veins, cervix, bronchi, larynx, and the skin. In embryological terms, these organs derive from the new mesoderm or from the ectoderm (see Third Biological Law
A “hanging healing” refers to the situation where the healing phase cannot be completed because of recurrent conflict relapses.
THIRD BIOLOGICAL LAW
Dr. Hamer’s medical research is firmly anchored in the science of embryology. Taking into account the development of the fetus (ontogenesis) he discovered that the correlation between the psyche, the brain, and the organs is closely connected to the three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) from which all organs of the human body originate. The Third Biological Law shows that the location of the Hamer Focus in the brain as well as the cell proliferation or cell loss following a DHS are not accidental but part of a meaningful biological system inherent in every living organism. The Biological Special Programs of Nature are encoded in every human cell and thus inscribed in the DNA, the carrier of genetic information (see GNM Article “Understanding Genetic Diseases”).
Through analyzing and comparing thousands of brain scans Dr. Hamer found that organs originating from the same embryonic germ layer are controlled from the same part of the brain.
- All organs that derive from the endoderm are controlled from the brainstem. Primitive life forms such as bacteria have only endodermal functions.
- All organs that derive from the old mesoderm are controlled from the cerebellum.
- All organs that derive from the new mesoderm are controlled from the cerebral medulla.
- All organs that derive from the ectoderm are controlled from the cerebral cortex.
FOURTH BIOLOGICAL LAW
For the first 2.5 billion years, microbes were the only organisms inhabiting the earth. Gradually, they populated other life forms, including plants, animals, and humans. It is estimated that the number of microbial cells residing in the human body (known as the “human microbiome”) outnumbers the body cells almost 4 to 1. Owing to their symbiotic relationship with the human organism and their vital role in maintaining the body tissues, microbes have become indispensable for our survival.
NOTE: The placenta that connects the developing fetus to the uterus is not sterile, as previously thought, but harbors a rich collection of bacteria. Hence, bacteria assist the healing process already in the organism of the fetus! “For more than a century scientists have assumed that babies come into the world germ-free after nine months in a sterile womb. Not so, new studies find: Bacteria lurk in the placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord, making the womb a germy place.” (Science News, May 28, 2014; see also “The Placenta Harbors a Unique Microbiome”, Science Transational Medicine, May 21, 2014). Mycobacteria such as TB bacteria are also introduced to the newborn through the breast milk.
The theory that certain “diseases” are caused by “pathogenic microbes” is one of the most persistent doctrines of modern medicine. This general conception is largely attributable to the fact that microbes are present at the site of a “diseased” organ. And since the activity of microbes is accompanied by swelling, fever, inflammation, pus, discharge, and pain, microbes are believed to be the cause of “infectious diseases”. Similar to the idea that an “abnormal” growth of cancer cells leads to the development of a “malignant” tumor, it is wrongly assumed that microbes growing beyond their normal ranges (see immune system theory) results in virulent “infections”.
Microbes don’t cause diseases but play instead a vital role during the healing phase.
The Fourth Biological Law shows that so-called “infectious diseases” occur exclusively in the second phase of a Biological Special Program, where the organism uses the microbes to optimize healing. During their activities microbes require a warm environment, hence, the development of an inflammation and fever. Microbes also need an acidic milieu, which is suitably provided through the vagotonic state that is dominant in every healing phase. The onset of an “infection” is therefore not, as presumed, brought on by an imbalanced pH level (a “wrong diet”) but rather by the transition from the conflict-active phase into the healing phase.
NOTE: Microbes are endemic. They live in harmony with all organisms of the ecological milieu in which they have developed over millions of years. Contact with microbes that are foreign to the human body, for example through traveling abroad, does not cause per se a “disease”. However, if, let’s say, a European happens to resolve a particular conflict in the tropics and comes in contact with local microbes, the related organ will use them for the healing process. Since the body is not accustomed to these exotic microorganisms, the healing symptoms can be quite severe.
Diseases are not contagious!
If two or more people happen to have the same symptoms, for example, a cold, diarrhea, or a stomach flu, this means that all of them are in the healing phase of the same type of conflict (stink conflict, indigestible morsel conflict, territorial anger conflict) that took place, let’s say, at school, at home, or at work.
FIFTH BIOLOGICAL LAW – THE QUINTESSENCE
Every so-called disease is part of a Significant Biological Special Program of Nature created to assists an organism (humans and animals alike) during unexpected distress.
Dr. Hamer: “All so-called diseases have a special biological meaning. While we used to regard Mother Nature as fallible and had the audacity to believe that She constantly made mistakes and caused breakdowns (malignant, senseless, degenerative cancerous growths, etc.) we can now see, as the scales fall from our eyes, that it was our ignorance and pride that were and are the only foolishness in our cosmos. Blinded, we brought upon ourselves this senseless, soulless and brutal medicine. Full of wonder, we can now understand for the first time that Nature is orderly and that every occurrence in Nature is meaningful, even in the framework of the whole. Nothing in Nature is meaningless, malignant or diseased.”
WHY AREN’T THESE LAWS IN WIKIPEDIA?
In October 1981, Dr. Hamer submitted his research to the University of Tuebingen as a post-doctoral thesis. The objective was to have his findings tested on equivalent cases so that the New Medicine could be taught to all medical students and that patients could benefit from the discoveries as soon as possible. But to his great surprise, the University committee rejected his work and refused to evaluate his thesis. This is an unprecedented case in the history of universities! There was yet another surprise. Shortly after he had handed in his thesis, Dr. Hamer was given the ultimatum to either deny his findings or his contract would not be renewed. It was extremely difficult for him to understand why he was being expelled from the clinic for presenting well-substantiated scientific findings. Dr. Hamer stood his ground. After his dismissal, he retreated to his private practice where he continued his research. Several attempts to open a private clinic failed because of concerted efforts opposing it. Letters of Dr. Hamer’s patients to health officials remained unanswered or were returned with the comment: “Not applicable!”. To this day, the firm position of the authorities has not changed.
The harassment of Dr. Hamer culminated in 1989, when a court sentence stopped him from practicing medicine. Despite the fact that his scientific work had never been disproved, he lost, at the age of 54, his medical license on the grounds that he refused to renounce his findings on the origin of cancer and to conform to the principles of official medicine. Deprived of a medical license, Dr. Hamer now relied on other doctors to obtain brain scans and patients’ records. But he was determined to continue his work. By 1987 Dr. Hamer had already analyzed over 10,000 cases and was able to expand his discovery of the Five Biological Laws to practically all diseases known in medicine. Meanwhile, the press and the medical establishment stopped at nothing to attack him and his work. Tabloid journalists and medical “experts” portray Dr. Hamer as a charlatan, a self-proclaimed miracle healer, a cult leader, an irrational outsider, or an insane criminal who denies cancer patients the ‘life-saving’ conventional treatments.
In 1997, Dr. Hamer was arrested and sentenced to 19 months in prison for having given three people free medical information without a medical license. By contrast, in 1991, thirteen years after he had killed Dirk Hamer, Victor Emanuel of Savoy had been sentenced to a mere 6 months probation for the illegal possession of a weapon. When Dr. Hamer was arrested, the police searched his patient files. Subsequently, one public prosecutor was forced to admit during the trial that after more than five years, of 6500 patients with mostly ‘terminal’ cancer, 6000 were still alive. And so, ironically, it was his opponents that provided the actual statistics attesting to German New Medicine’s remarkable success rate. Yet, to this day, the University of Tuebingen refuses, despite court orders in 1986 and 1994, to test Dr. Hamer’s scientific work. Similarly, official medicine refuses to endorse GNM despite its numerous verifications by both physicians and professorial associations.
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